Category Archives: NASA

One (More) Small Step: Orion Spacecraft Set to Launch

NASA’s-Orion-Spacecraft-2-798x350When NASA launches its brand-new Orion spacecraft later this year, it is also launching what it hopes will be a new era of human spaceflight. It will be a test flight, but the ultimate goal of the Orion project is to send humans further into space than the moon for the first time ever.

The test flight is scheduled for December. NASA will launch Orion from Florida. From there, it will orbit the Earth twice before landing in the Pacific Ocean. Although the point of Orion is to carry astronauts into space, this test will be unmanned. Scientists and engineers want to see how the spacecraft performs, especially Orion’s life support systems and the systems that connect Orion to the rocket.

Image converted using ImgCvtThink of future space launches as having two main parts. Orion is the module that will carry astronauts. Once the astronauts have completed their mission, Orion also has the capacity to safely reenter the atmosphere. The Space Launch System, or SLS, is the system of rockets that will lift it into space. The SLS is still being developed. For the December test, Orion will be launched using a type of rocket that already exists.

The goal of the Orion program is to first capture an asteroid that has been towed into lunar orbit, and eventually take humans to Mars, which NASA projects may happen by 2025.

Orion is a revival of the United States’ largely dormant space program that should see humanity go further than it ever has. So you can bet that when Orion takes off in December, all eyes will be on it.

OrionWhat’s in a Name?
Orion is one of the most famous constellations in the night sky. In the epic Greek adventure by Homer, The Odyssey, Orion was a hunter who, upon his death, was made into a constellation.

Fun Facts:

  • Orion’s first test flight will take it 3600 miles above the Earth, 15 times the distance of the International Space Station.
  • Orion’s test flight will use the Delta IV Heavy, but when Orion is actually used to transport humans, it will change to the more powerful Space Launch System.
  • When Orion reenters the atmosphere, it will be moving at over 20,000 miles per hour, which will cause the exterior of the spacecraft to heat up to 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit.

Brave New Worlds and Goldilocks

In this photograph, taken by an astronaut on board the International Space Station, Venus is seen moving in front of, or transiting, the sun. Although the planet is small in comparison to the sun, it blocks part of the light reaching the earth. Using very sensitive instruments, scientists can now measure the very slight dimming that occurs when an exoplanet blocks part of the light from a distant star it orbits. (Photo: NASA)
In this photograph, taken by an astronaut on board the International Space Station, Venus is seen moving in front of, or transiting, the sun. Although the planet is small in comparison to the sun, it blocks part of the light reaching the earth. Using very sensitive instruments, scientists can now measure the very slight dimming that occurs when an exoplanet blocks part of the light from a distant star it orbits. (Photo: NASA)
Do we know if there are planets orbiting other stars? Until about 20 years ago, the answer would have been “NO!” Most astronomers believed that there were probably planets going around other stars, but that it was not possible to find them. Planets are just so small compared to stars and the stars are so far away.

Then, in the 1990s, some really smart scientists thought up some crazy ideas to detect planets orbiting distant stars.

The simplest one became known as the Transit Method. When Mercury or Venus travel across the disc of the Sun (known as transiting the Sun), the amount of sunlight hitting the Earth goes down.

Think about a light bulb burning and a fly buzzing around it. While you look at the bulb as the fly buzzes by, the amount of light you see from the bulb is slightly less than when the fly is gone. It’s a very small amount, but the bulb does in fact become dimmer.

Now what if we could measure the brightness of a distant star incredibly accurately, and see if it dims? And what the star dims and brightens on a regular basis (like once a year)?

If that’s the case, it might be caused by a planet orbiting the star.

Let me pause and be the science grammar policeman. Technically, as poor Pluto learned, there are only 8 planets; a planet is now defined as a celestial body that, among other things, orbits our Sun. So if we’re talking about worlds orbiting some other star, they cannot be called planets. Astronomers call them exoplanets. “Exo” means “outside,” so exoplanet means a planet orbiting a star outside our solar system.

Using the Transit Method and other ingenious methods, astronomers started finding exoplanets, lots of them. It takes a long time to be sure. It takes multiple observations by multiple teams using multiple methods before an exoplanet is confirmed.

Now, hundreds of exoplanets have been confirmed. Thousands more listed as probable but haven’t been confirmed yet. The number keeps growing.

The artist's concept depicts NASA's Kepler mission's smallest habitable zone planet. Seen in the foreground is Kepler-62f, a super-Earth-size planet in the habitable zone of a star smaller and cooler than the sun, located about 1,200 light-years from Earth in the constellation Lyra. Kepler-62f orbits it's host star every 267 days and is roughly 40 percent larger than Earth in size. The size of Kepler-62f is known, but its mass and composition are not. However, based on previous exoplanet discoveries of similar size that are rocky, scientists are able to determine its mass by association. Much like our solar system, Kepler-62 is home to two habitable zone worlds. The small shining object seen to the right of Kepler-62f is Kepler-62e. Orbiting on the inner edge of the habitable zone, Kepler-62e is roughly 60 percent larger than Earth. (Image credit: NASA Ames/JPL-Caltech/Tim Pyle)
The artist’s concept depicts NASA’s Kepler mission’s smallest habitable zone planet. Seen in the foreground is Kepler-62f, a super-Earth-size planet in the habitable zone of a star smaller and cooler than the sun, located about 1,200 light-years from Earth in the constellation Lyra. Kepler-62f orbits it’s host star every 267 days and is roughly 40 percent larger than Earth in size. The size of Kepler-62f is known, but its mass and composition are not. However, based on previous exoplanet discoveries of similar size that are rocky, scientists are able to determine its mass by association. Much like our solar system, Kepler-62 is home to two habitable zone worlds. The small shining object seen to the right of Kepler-62f is Kepler-62e. Orbiting on the inner edge of the habitable zone, Kepler-62e is roughly 60 percent larger than Earth. (Image credit: NASA Ames/JPL-Caltech/Tim Pyle)
In 2009, NASA launched the Kepler Space telescope to find stars with exoplanets. It tracked the brightness of over 100,000 stars for over 4 years. It has discovered at least 900 confirmed exoplanets, and has provided scientists with so much data that will take years to completely review.

The Kepler scientist have found lots of weird planets. Huge planets bigger than Jupiter yet closer to their star than Mercury, orbiting every few days! They found planets twice the size of Earth, dubbed “Super Earths” really far away from their stars. They found planets orbiting two stars!

Scientists have even been able to determine all sorts of characteristics about these exoplanets including:

  • How big they are.
  • How long is their year.
  • How far away from their star is their orbit.
  • What chemicals are in their atmosphere

Naturally, astronomers want to locate planets that have the right conditions for life. They are looking for exoplanets that have orbits that means they are not too hot and not too cold, planets that are “just right” for life. They call this the Goldilocks zone. They have many candidates, so who knows what they’ll learn in the future?

The Gemini Planet Imager’s first light image of Beta Pictoris b (Processing by Christian Marois, NRC Canada)
The Gemini Planet Imager’s first light image of Beta Pictoris b (Processing by Christian Marois, NRC Canada)
In just a few years exoplanets have gone from science fiction to science fact. Earlier this year, scientists in Chile used special techniques and even took a photograph of an exoplanet! See below the image of Beta Pictoris b, a planet orbiting the star Beta Pictoris. In the picture below, the light of the star itself is blocked out by a disk so the planet can be seen. It’s great to see science in action.

Keep up with the latest exoplanet discoveries yourself at http://kepler.nasa.gov/Mission/discoveries/

Far Out, Dude! (Really, We Mean It…)

This artist's concept shows NASA's Voyager spacecraft against a field of stars in the darkness of space. (NASA/JPL-Caltech).
This artist’s concept shows NASA’s Voyager spacecraft against a field of stars in the darkness of space. (NASA/JPL-Caltech).
When I was 11 years old, my family went on a 1,500 mile, two-week, car trip from New England to Florida. I got to see New York City and Washington, D.C., from the car window. Highlights of the trip included Disney World and the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral. However, I was trapped in a station wagon with my older brother and sister for two weeks. To me, it was a very long voyage.

What did I know?

In 1977, three months after I returned to Connecticut, NASA launched two spaceships from Cape Canaveral. They were named Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. Their mission was to go as far from the sun as possible, to take the longest voyage ever.

The thing is: space is really big. It takes a really long time to get around.

The two Voyagers spent more than three years flying through the middle of our solar system, giving us Earthlings our very first up-close views of Jupiter and Saturn. The images they sent back were incredible — rings were found around Jupiter, volcanoes were seen on Jupiter’s moon, Io…

However, the Voyagers only gave these worlds a passing look, like driving past New York City going 100 miles per hour. It would be up to future missions to return to the outer planets for more in-depth research.

The Voyagers didn’t even slow down as they flew by the planets. While Voyager 2 took the long road, spending another ten years checking out Uranus and Neptune, Voyager 1 left Saturn in 1980 and headed out of town.

At this point, it is important to remind you that space is really big. It takes a long time to get anywhere! And the solar system is much bigger that orbit of Pluto (See: What Happened to Pluto?).

In August 2013, scientists determined that Voyager 1 had left the solar system. It is the first machine built by humans ever to leave the solar system — truly a triumph for all mankind! It is about 11.8 billion miles away in interstellar space, the space between stars! Voyager 2 is about four years behind. Their journey will continue for another 40,000 years before they reach another star.

The Golden Record sent with the Voyager Spacecraft. (NASA)
The Golden Record sent with the Voyager Spacecraft. (NASA)
In case space aliens ever find the Voyagers, NASA put some amazing items inside to explain Earth and humanity to them. There is a golden phonograph record album (before there were CDs or compact discs, there were phonograph records … ask your parents). Recorded on the album are samples of 55 Earth languages, and various music selections, everything from Mozart to rock-n-roll legend Chuck Berry. Steve Martin, (the comedian, author, actor, & musician) noted that it is quite possible, thanks to Voyager, that the first message we ever receive from an alien space civilization may very well be them asking us to “send more Chuck Berry”. Far out, in every sense.

Fun Phineas Facts

We are still in contact with both Voyagers. They have a radioactive power source onboard with lots of power and still send data regularly. Due to the vast distances, it takes over 35 hours to get a response after sending a message to them. By timing how long these communications take, we can calculate exactly how far away they are at all times. The messages travel at 186,000 miles per second – the speed of light.

Can you make the calculation yourself to solve how far away Voyager 1 is? Grab a calculator and be sure to ask you math teacher for help if you need it!

— Time to send message and get reply back from spacecraft: 35 hours
— How fast the messages travel: 186,000 miles per second
— Question: How far away is the spacecraft, in miles?

Process:
1. Determine the number of seconds in an hour (60 minutes times 60 seconds)
2. Multiply the number of seconds per hour times 35 hours (the total time it takes to send and get a reply)
3. Multiply your total by the speed of light — 186,000 miles per second. This gives you the total number of miles the message traveled.
4. Divide your answer by 2, since the message made two trips — one to the spacecraft and one back home.


References:

NASA Voyager Site

Voyager Program

More Info on Voyager’s Golden Record

Spotting the International Space Station

Astronaut Chris Cassidy works outside the space station on May 11, 2013.  Credit: NASA
Astronaut Chris Cassidy works outside the space station on May 11, 2013. Credit: NASA
Almost everyone has heard of the International Space Station (ISS). It is one of the most spectacular technological achievements ever, but it is easy to take it for granted. After all, it has been in orbit for more than 13 years. Astronauts have lived on board all that time, conducting science experiments and learning the kinds of things that will help humans extend their reach into space. Since ISS may be the coolest laboratory ever built, we recommend making a New Year’s commitment to keeping track of what’s going on there.

Luckily, NASA makes it easy to keep up with ISS. On the web site http://spacestationlive.nasa.gov/ you will find animations and education resources about “humankind’s permanent outpost in space.” You can find details of the daily activities for each astronaut, along with timelines and live video feeds. You can view the same data being viewed by ground control officers at NASA, so if you’ve ever wanted to try your hand at being a flight director, start here.

For an overview of what is going on with ISS, NASA provides a great option. The YouTube channel ReelNASA provides a weekly newscast about what’s happening aboard the International Space Station. You’ll find links to in-depth information about the experiments and projects that are discussed. You can even send in your own questions. It is pretty cool.

The space station, including its large solar arrays, spans the area of a U.S. football field, including the end zones, and weighs 924,739 pounds. The complex now has more livable room than a conventional six-bedroom house, and has two bathrooms, a gymnasium and a 360-degree bay window.
The space station, including its large solar arrays, spans the area of a U.S. football field, including the end zones, and weighs 924,739 pounds. The complex now has more livable room than a conventional six-bedroom house, and has two bathrooms, a gymnasium and a 360-degree bay window.
Spotting the International Space Station
For the ultimate in “keeping up with the ISS,” nothing beats taking a look with your own eyes. The ISS is the size of a football field and orbits Earth at an average altitude of 220 miles. Just before sunrise or when night has fallen where you live, the ISS is sometimes overhead and high enough to still be in the sunlight. It is highly reflective and very bright, so it is easy to spot if you know when to look. It moves quickly across the sky, which isn’t a surprise considering that the ISS orbits the Earth every 90 minutes and travels at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour. Between moving fast and being wildly bright, it is easy to spot.

To know when to look, go the the NASA site http://spotthestation.nasa.gov/ and click on Location Lookup. Simply enter your location information (Country, State, City, etc.). The site will display information about when the ISS will be visible to you. The main thing, of course, is to find a day and time when you can go outside and look, and then to hope it is not too cloudy during your viewing window.

The results for your local area provide all the information you need to pick a good viewing time. Then you just have to hope it is not cloudy.
The results for your local area provide all the information you need to pick a good viewing time. Then you just have to hope it is not cloudy.
The next important thing is to make sure the ISS will be high enough for you to see. For the “Max Height” column, know that 90 degrees equals directly overhead, so any number above, say, 45 degrees will put the ISS high in the sky. Lower numbers mean the ISS will appear closer to the horizon, so trees or buildings might be in the way and block your line of sight.

Use this graphic to visualize what path the ISS might take in the sky. Credit: NASA.
Use this graphic to visualize what path the ISS might take in the sky. Credit: NASA.
And remember, sight lines work both ways. Since NASA streams live views of the Earth from the ISS, you can very easily go outside to wait for the ISS to appear overhead while watching the live view of Earth from the ISS on a smartphone or tablet computer (if you have a web connection). This allows you to see what astronauts aboard the ISS see if they look down. If it is just past sunset where you live, for instance, look for the line on Earth between night and day to figure out about where you are in terms of east and west.

When the ISS blazes its way across the sky hundreds of miles overhead, you will have achieved a dual, realtime perspective that would have been almost impossible to dream of just a few decades ago. Give it a try!

This picture shows a five-second exposure of the ISS passing just above the Pleiades star cluster on Dec. 27, 2013. The length of the path over five seconds gives you an idea of how fast the ISS moves across the sky.
This picture shows a five-second exposure of the ISS passing just above the Pleiades star cluster on Dec. 27, 2013. The length of the path over five seconds gives you an idea of how fast the ISS moves across the sky. Credit: Clifton Dowell

Houston, We Have a Photo Album! Photographs from Apollo Astronauts

moonmanOne of my favorite books about space has very few words in it at all. “Full Moon” celebrates the photographs of the Apollo moon missions taken by the astronauts themselves. Their spacesuits had film cameras mounted on the front at chest level. As they moved around the surface of the moon, they carefully documented everything they could, mostly for scientific purposes.

That means that today, a lunar geologist studying a rock brought back from the moon can see exactly how the rock was situated on the surface there before it was picked up — extremely valuable information!

Of course, in addition to having scientific value, the pictures are also just incredibly cool and interesting to look at. “Full Moon” has about 130 pictures, organized by mission stage (the trip there, lunar orbit, the surface, splashdown). The photographer who put the book together, Michael Light, had plenty of material to work with — there are about 32,000 pictures from the Apollo missions. He used his artistic vision to choose photographs that are beautiful as well as informative.

full-moon-barA Fresh Look
While dozens of pictures from the U.S.A.’s famous race to the moon are as familiar as the nose on your face, thousands and thousands of pictures have hardly been seen by anyone. But even when it comes to pictures you’ve seen before, you’ve never seen them quite like this.

The 17 Apollo missions took place between 1967 and 1972, so of course the photographs were taken with film cameras. NASA had to keep such important film safe, so here’s what happened:

When astronauts got back and their film was developed, a number of the pictures were chosen as being the most news-worthy from that particular mission. The film negatives for those pictures were copied. Those copies were used to make pictures for newspapers, magazines, which then made their own copies. Publishers often ended up using copies of copies of the originals.

This process had two results. First, it caused the same pictures to be used over and over again. Second, it meant that publishers were often stuck using poor quality negatives.

By the 1990s, when Michael Light negotiated with NASA for access to the archive of original film negatives, technology had come a long way. Instead of taking photographs of the negatives he picked for the book, he scanned them using a high-resolution digital film scanner. This allowed the photographs in “Full Moon” to be reproduced with a sharpness and clarity that is stunning. All you can say, is “Wow.”

Nowadays, you can explore the Apollo archives yourself by going to one of the web sites that have databases of all the pictures (we provide some links below). You’ll see some interesting sights and gain a real appreciation for the amount of work the astronauts did simply to train for their trips to the moon. But for a gripping, one-stop ride from launchpad to splashdown, give “Full Moon” a look. You won’t be disappointed in this perfect artistic interpretation of one of the greatest technological achievements of all time.

Fun Phineas Fact
Getting to the moon took a lot of time and a lot of work. The archives of the Apollo missions show spectacular views of barren lunar surface and of the beautiful blue sphere of Earth hanging in an ink-black sky. But a look through more of the galleries below will give you insight into how much more there was to getting to the moon and back than simply starting a countdown.Selected images from NASA

The Project Apollo Gallery

Slideshow of the Image Scans Used in Full Moon