Category Archives: NASA

Saturn: Weirdo of the Solar System

This is an artists concept of Cassini during the Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) maneuver, just after the main engine has begun firing. The spacecraft is moving out of the plane of the page and to the right (firing to reduce its spacecraft velocity with respect to Saturn) and has just crossed the ring plane. Cassini's close proximity to the planet after the maneuver offers a unique opportunity to observe Saturn and its rings at extremely high resolution. Image Credit: NASA/JPL
This is an artists concept of Cassini during the Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) maneuver, just after the main engine has begun firing. The spacecraft is moving out of the plane of the page and to the right (firing to reduce its spacecraft velocity with respect to Saturn) and has just crossed the ring plane. Cassini’s close proximity to the planet after the maneuver offers a unique opportunity to observe Saturn and its rings at extremely high resolution.
Image Credit: NASA/JPL
There is a giant robot circling planet Saturn right now. And this robot is finding weird, amazing things: rainstorms of liquid diamonds, hurricanes bigger than the Earth, ice volcanoes…

But before we get to all that, I should back up a bit and give just a little background on Saturn so you will fully appreciate these new discoveries. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun, the farthest planet that can be easily seen without a telescope.

We have always known that Saturn was unusual. Actually, all of the planets were a little unusual to ancient star-gazers. They studied the night sky and saw that almost all the bright dots in the sky moved at the same speed and direction. But they also noticed that five bright dots in the sky moved differently than the stars and constellations. They called these five dots planets (which means wanderer): Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn wander among the constellations of the night sky.

Galileo's Drawings of SaturnMore than 500 years ago, in the year 1610, Mr. Galileo found that Saturn was really weird. He was the first person to point a telescope at Saturn and he saw the most incredible sight; Saturn had ears! His drawings looked a bit like Mickey Mouse, with a big circle in the middle and ears poking out on the right and left side.

Another astronomer, Chris Huygens, using a better telescope, found that the “ear” Galileo saw were actually a ring around the planet, just like one you might wear on your finger. Then a guy named Gio Cassini used an even better telescope and could see that the ring was actually multiple rings (at least three) with clear separations between them.

As Saturn advances in its orbit toward equinox and the sun gradually moves northward on the planet, the motion of Saturn's ring shadows and the changing colors of its atmosphere continue to transform the face of Saturn as seen by Cassini. Image Credit: PIA11141 NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
As Saturn advances in its orbit toward equinox and the sun gradually moves northward on the planet, the motion of Saturn’s ring shadows and the changing colors of its atmosphere continue to transform the face of Saturn as seen by Cassini. Image Credit: PIA11141 NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
Over the years, we have continued to learn just how weird Saturn is. Saturn has at least 62 moons and dozens of rings. It is the second largest planet, called a “gas giant” which means that it has no rocky surface, it’s all air. Even though it’s huge (760 times bigger than Earth), the gas is really light. If you could put Saturn in a big enough bucket of water, it would float!

Although it is so big, it spins really fast; a day on Saturn is only about 10 hours long. Gas spinning that fast causes tremendously violent storms. Hurricanes larger than whole the Earth rage across Saturn all the time.

Titan's atmosphere makes Saturn's largest moon look like a fuzzy orange ball in this natural color view from the Cassini spacecraft. Titan's north polar hood is visible at the top of the image, and a faint blue haze also can be detected above the south pole at the bottom of this view. (Image Credit: PIA14602 NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute)
Titan’s atmosphere makes Saturn’s largest moon look like a fuzzy orange ball in this natural color view from the Cassini spacecraft. Titan’s north polar hood is visible at the top of the image, and a faint blue haze also can be detected above the south pole at the bottom of this view. (Image Credit: PIA14602 NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute)
Saturn’s super moon, Titan, is bigger than planet Mercury and has clouds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

By 1990 we had learned a whole lot about Saturn using Earth based instruments (and two very brief flyby missions). But there is just so much you can do from about 1 billion miles away. To learn more, we needed to get up close and personal for an extended time.

In 1997 we launched robot spaceship to do just that. It was named in honor of Mr. Cassini, and carried a smaller robot onboard named after Huygens. Cassini/Huygens was the biggest spaceship NASA had ever built, over 6 tons, big as a school bus. After a six year journey Cassini/Huygens arrived at Saturn and started sending back jaw-dropping details about our sixth planet.

In the next post, I will share some of the secrets of Saturn uncovered by Cassini/Huygens. Be prepared to be amazed!

Fun Phineas Facts
Saturn’s rings disappear every few years! It happened in 1612, completely shocking Galileo. Then to his surprise, the next year they reappeared.

To understand why, you can do a simple experiment. Find a round disc in your home (a quarter, CD, frisbee…) and hold it out at arms length so it looks like a circle. Now tilt it so all you can see is the edge.

Saturns rings are like the disc in your hand. Saturns rings are very wide, but only 30 feet thick. As seen from Earth, Saturns rings wobble, and about every 7 years they are edge on, and basically invisible to us. Then they wobble some more and reappear.

References:

http://www.space.com/48-saturn-the-solar-systems-major-ring-bearer.html

http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/

Museo Galileo

Armchair Explorer: Postcards from the Red Planet

mars_rover
Self-Portrait of Mars Rover Curiosity – NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS


No matter how far you go, it’s always nice to keep in touch with the folks back home. That’s especially true for a spacecraft that has traveled millions of miles just to send pictures and other information from the surface of Mars back to scientists on Earth.

On June 19, researchers at NASA released their biggest, most detailed picture ever of the surface of Mars. For space fans following the progress of NASA’s Mars rover — named “Curiosity” — as it explores the surface of the Red Planet, pictures are nothing new. One of the great things about NASA is that mission scientists share lots of the data sent back to Earth. Armchair explorers can browse information on the Web — photos, charts, maps, animations and multimedia — alongside scientists around the world.

But the latest picture is NASA’s hugest ever (in camera terms, more than one billion pixels!), which means you can change your viewing angle, move it around and look at different parts of it. When you see something interesting, you can zoom in for closer inspection. See an interesting rock a mile away? No problem. Click and zoom until you get a better look.

It’s as close as you can get to taking a stroll around the surface of Mars.

Billion-Pixel View of Mars Surface with Pan and Zoom

The reason such detail is possible is that the image is made by stitching together nearly 900 pictures taken by Curiosity as it moved around the surface. The pictures were taken over several days in the October and November of 2012. The area photographed includes a windblown patch named “Rocknest,” and extends to Mount Sharp on the horizon. “It gives a sense of place and really shows off the cameras’ capabilities,” said Bob Deen of the Multi-Mission Image Processing Laboratory at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

To access the image and start your own “roving” adventure, go click on the link above.


TERMS

NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, an independent agency of the United States government responsible for aviation and spaceflight.

PIXEL: The basic unit of the composition of an image on a display screen; basically, one single dot that can’t be divided.


SOURCES

PRESS RELEASE: Billion-Pixel View of Mars Comes From Curiosity Rover

WEB: NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory

WEB: NASA’s All About Mars

WIKI: Mars Science Laboratory

WEB: Information on NASA’s Multi-Mission Image Processing Laboratory


PHOTO CREDIT

Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS “Updated Curiosity Self-Portrait at ‘John Klein'” This self-portrait of NASA’s Mars rover Curiosity combines dozens of exposures taken by the rover’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) during the 177th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity’s work on Mars (Feb. 3, 2013), plus three exposures taken during Sol 270 (May 10, 2013) to update the appearance of part of the ground beside the rover. The updated area, which is in the lower left quadrant of the image, shows gray-powder and two holes where Curiosity used its drill on the rock target “John Klein.” The portion has been spliced into a self-portrait that was prepared and released in February (http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA16764), before the use of the drill. The result shows what the site where the self-portrait was taken looked like by the time the rover was ready to drive away from that site in May 2013.

The rover’s robotic arm is not visible in the mosaic. MAHLI, which took the component images for this mosaic, is mounted on a turret at the end of the arm. Wrist motions and turret rotations on the arm allowed MAHLI to acquire the mosaic’s component images. The arm was positioned out of the shot in the images, or portions of images, used in the mosaic.

Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, developed, built and operates MAHLI. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project and the mission’s Curiosity rover for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The rover was designed and assembled at JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.