Far Out, Dude! (Really, We Mean It…)

This artist's concept shows NASA's Voyager spacecraft against a field of stars in the darkness of space. (NASA/JPL-Caltech).
This artist’s concept shows NASA’s Voyager spacecraft against a field of stars in the darkness of space. (NASA/JPL-Caltech).
When I was 11 years old, my family went on a 1,500 mile, two-week, car trip from New England to Florida. I got to see New York City and Washington, D.C., from the car window. Highlights of the trip included Disney World and the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral. However, I was trapped in a station wagon with my older brother and sister for two weeks. To me, it was a very long voyage.

What did I know?

In 1977, three months after I returned to Connecticut, NASA launched two spaceships from Cape Canaveral. They were named Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. Their mission was to go as far from the sun as possible, to take the longest voyage ever.

The thing is: space is really big. It takes a really long time to get around.

The two Voyagers spent more than three years flying through the middle of our solar system, giving us Earthlings our very first up-close views of Jupiter and Saturn. The images they sent back were incredible — rings were found around Jupiter, volcanoes were seen on Jupiter’s moon, Io…

However, the Voyagers only gave these worlds a passing look, like driving past New York City going 100 miles per hour. It would be up to future missions to return to the outer planets for more in-depth research.

The Voyagers didn’t even slow down as they flew by the planets. While Voyager 2 took the long road, spending another ten years checking out Uranus and Neptune, Voyager 1 left Saturn in 1980 and headed out of town.

At this point, it is important to remind you that space is really big. It takes a long time to get anywhere! And the solar system is much bigger that orbit of Pluto (See: What Happened to Pluto?).

In August 2013, scientists determined that Voyager 1 had left the solar system. It is the first machine built by humans ever to leave the solar system — truly a triumph for all mankind! It is about 11.8 billion miles away in interstellar space, the space between stars! Voyager 2 is about four years behind. Their journey will continue for another 40,000 years before they reach another star.

The Golden Record sent with the Voyager Spacecraft. (NASA)
The Golden Record sent with the Voyager Spacecraft. (NASA)
In case space aliens ever find the Voyagers, NASA put some amazing items inside to explain Earth and humanity to them. There is a golden phonograph record album (before there were CDs or compact discs, there were phonograph records … ask your parents). Recorded on the album are samples of 55 Earth languages, and various music selections, everything from Mozart to rock-n-roll legend Chuck Berry. Steve Martin, (the comedian, author, actor, & musician) noted that it is quite possible, thanks to Voyager, that the first message we ever receive from an alien space civilization may very well be them asking us to “send more Chuck Berry”. Far out, in every sense.

Fun Phineas Facts

We are still in contact with both Voyagers. They have a radioactive power source onboard with lots of power and still send data regularly. Due to the vast distances, it takes over 35 hours to get a response after sending a message to them. By timing how long these communications take, we can calculate exactly how far away they are at all times. The messages travel at 186,000 miles per second – the speed of light.

Can you make the calculation yourself to solve how far away Voyager 1 is? Grab a calculator and be sure to ask you math teacher for help if you need it!

— Time to send message and get reply back from spacecraft: 35 hours
— How fast the messages travel: 186,000 miles per second
— Question: How far away is the spacecraft, in miles?

Process:
1. Determine the number of seconds in an hour (60 minutes times 60 seconds)
2. Multiply the number of seconds per hour times 35 hours (the total time it takes to send and get a reply)
3. Multiply your total by the speed of light — 186,000 miles per second. This gives you the total number of miles the message traveled.
4. Divide your answer by 2, since the message made two trips — one to the spacecraft and one back home.


References:

NASA Voyager Site

Voyager Program

More Info on Voyager’s Golden Record